Koli is the main language spoken by the community, Marathi is another frequently used language among Kolis. All work is written to order. S. rastrifer, B. Ronchus, The spawning activity in the mangrove is merely occasional. Authorities say they will plant five mangroves for each one that is cut for the bullet train. 1985, Vance et al. Today, many of these mangroves … However, there are many media reports which illustrate a completely opposite narrative, they indicate that the government has been taking many steps to stop this damage and these steps have even produced some fruitful results. These structures provide protection in various ways: by reducing prey visibility, by lowering encounter rate of prey and predator, and by limiting the ability of predator to search for and capture prey (Rönnbäck et al. And rapid urbanization continues to threaten them. Seema Adgaonkar, 57, helped set up this mangrove nursery when she worked as a forest ranger with the state mangrove conservation unit. Bhaskar Paul/The India Today Group/Getty Images Exclusive mangroves are the largest group, comprising around 60 species (Saenger et al., 1983). Several environmental activists have raised the voice against these violations. Company Registration No: 4964706. UN Photo/Martine Perret. 1. "It's very sad to see these mangroves dying like this. Environment activists and town planners believe destruction of mangroves and unplanned constructions are responsible for flooding in Mumbai every year after heavy rains. Mangroves absorb excess water but they are being destroyed in Mumbai in … 2001, Alongi 2002). With these mangroves gone, Mumbai will be left without a vital line of defense when natural disasters strike. ... Satellite photos reveal how Mumbai killed its rivers and mangrove forests to risk epic floods. There are around 80 species of mangroves found throughout the world (Saenger et al., 1983). This destruction exacerbating economic stress of largely low-income, fast growing local population, who are driven to exploit mangroves despite clear signs of degradation. (b) Manufacture, handling, storage or disposal of hazardous substances. scientists, government, local populations of biotic and socioeconomic services. Some sparsely covered patches of mangrove are also found in Bandra, Colaba, Mahul and Malabar Hill. Mangroves are cut down in Hera, Timor-Leste, 16 km from capital Dili, where frequent trash dumping threatens the area's natural plant and wildlife. Urban development of areas in and near mangroves results in the destruction of this habitat as well as other associated wetland habitats. The data show that the rate of migrants in search for better employment has been higher in the late 1990s. Out of the total acreage, 57% of the mangroves are found on the East Coast, 23% on the west coast and the remaining 20% on Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Various fishes consume most of their feed when they come to the mangrove area. (k) Dressing or altering of sand dunes, hills natural features including landscape changes. The function of mangroves as nursery sites is widely accepted (e.g., Blaber 2000, Kathiresan & Bingham 2001) and this paradigm is used for important management decisions on habitat conservation and restoration of mangrove (Beck et al. In 2005, when the city experienced unprecedented monsoon rainfall leading to catastrophic flooding, one of the worst affected areas was a commercial hub in central Mumbai, full of shopping malls and skyscrapers. There are clear cases of example which depict the correlation between the magnitude of commercial finfish catches and the extent of mangroves. Destruction of mangroves and unplanned constructions are responsible for flooding in Mumbai every year after heavy rains, say environment activists and town planners. Destruction of coral reefs: Coral reefs provide the first barrier against currents and strong waves. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. The greatest immediate threat to mangroves comes from different forms of coastal development, pollution and human in the Ministry of Forest and Environment. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. ", The roots of mangroves, poking through swamp mud, serve as breeding areas for fish. A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Coastal areas which receive ample amount of rainfall, heavy runoff and seepage into the intertidal zone from the hinterland are most suitable for mangrove. There are also theories that states; area of mangrove habitat in an estuary translates to the secondary production and catch of commercial fisheries (Baran 1999). By Nov. 12, 2019 (right), the development work for the airport had wiped out hundreds of acres of mangroves. In some marine species juveniles are only found in mangroves and these are termed as mangrove dependent species; e.g., banana prawn P. merguiensis (Staples et al. (Chauhan, 2004), Prohibited Activities in the Coastal Regulation Zone. mangrove areas in India. According to the Government of India, the total area of the mangroves in India was around at 6,740 sq. Climate change also affects their survival. New UN report warns of ‘devastating’ effects from ongoing destruction of mangrove forests. Dolkars practice fishing on large scale Vatsads, who are a poor class of fishermen usually in the employ of the richer members of the community. The three main hypotheses are that mangroves provide juveniles with. Lower temperature and frost also limits the growth and distribution of mangrove (Tomlinson, 1986). Kumar says environmentalists are often branded as anti-development, especially when they oppose projects like the bullet train, which, for many Indians, is a source of pride. 1281 Words 6 Pages. Violation of Coastal Regulation Zone has been seen in various parts of Mumbai Metropolitan region. Studies show that Mumbai lost nearly 40 percent of its mangroves between 1991 and 2001 — about 9,000 acres. But a handful of officers of the mangrove cell are not enough to save all of Mumbai's mangroves, Adgaonkar says. Around 43 per cent of city’s population considered to be migrant. Uneven growth of various regions has made migration a serious challenge. Unfortunately, irresponsible tourism can destroy the very resources people are coming to see. 1989, Valiela et al. The turbid and shaded water often found around mangroves may therefore provide an additional refuge from visual predators (Blaber & Blaber 1980, Whitfield 1999). It declares a “Coastal Regulation Zone” notified in 1991, in which industrial and other activities such as discharge of untreated water and effluents, dumping of waste and land reclamation are restricted in order to protect the Coastal environment. hide caption. Urban encroachment. Shruti and Sunil Agarwal filed a petition against the conversion of 80 hectares of Navi Mumbai’s rich wetlands into a golf course and residential complex. References & Resources. Bare trees with slender branches line a half-built highway overpass in eastern Mumbai. 2001, Alongi 2002). Their aerial roots poke through dry, caked mud instead of brackish water. km. Show More. "That was a truly eye-opening incident for me and my community," Pawar says. Increasing population growth of metropolitan has created concretization of island city and clearing of vital floral resources. Many parts of it have been built by reclaiming land from the sea. Figure Number of fish and shrimp species occurring in freshwater, marine and mangrove ecosystem showing higher species diversity in the mangroves (Islam & Haque 2005). Juvenile fishes get attracted to turbid areas and may use the turbidity gradient to locate nursery areas. "Destruction of mangroves has definitely been one of the major causes of flooding, since the land reclaimed from mangroves is now blocking the rain water from flowing out into the sea. Mangroves absorb excess water but they are being destroyed in Mumbai in the guise of infrastructure development, city-based environmentalist Debi Goenka told . b) Operational constructions for ports and harbours and lighthouses requiring water frontage Jetty, waves quays etc. India Editor. Nursery areas for fishes have been regarded as any areas inhabited by the juveniles, often with the adults living in separate habitats. This can be linked to a decrease in the dependence on fuelwood by former villages that were overtaken by urban development, and a shift to alternatives such as compressed … Mangroves absorb excess water but they are being destroyed in Mumbai in the guise of infrastructure development, city-based environmentalist Debi Goenka told PTI. In 2005, when the city experienced unprecedented monsoon rainfall leading to catastrophic flooding, one of the worst affected areas was a commercial hub in central Mumbai, full of shopping … It was the British who, upon realizing the strategic and commercial importance of the islands of the Arabian Sea, ordered for the clearing of the mangroves that rimmed the once-separated islands to create a continuous land mass then known as Greater Bombay. Lot of their daily activities depend on the fishing season and tidal movement. The importance of mangrove for sustaining production of fishery in coastal ecosystem is a widely held paradigm that mangroves act as important nursery sites for fisheries species. And that has happened before. In early nineties around 37 sq.km. Figure: Proportion of existing global mangrove areas and areas in the South and Southeast Asia. I. Parvipinnis, The spawning activity does not occur in the mangrove, and the gonadal maturation, if present, does not occur in many individual. The cases relate to debris dumping, encroachment, … Mangrove communities including invertebrates, fishes, and plants are also highly susceptible to damage from petroleum products. These areas receive extensive sedimentation which provides huge quantity of nutrients, which in turn are favourable for mangrove growth (Tomlinson, 1986). The Bombay High Court ruled in 2018 that the destruction of mangroves "offends the fundamental rights of citizens," and several people have been arrested, mostly for encroachment. Based on the reproductive pattern and its association with the mangrove fishes can be classified into following four categories: The spawning activity of the species occurs regularly in the mangrove. Seema Adgaonkar, 57, helped set up this mangrove nursery when she worked as a forest ranger with the state mangrove conservation unit. (f) Dumping of ash or any wastes from thermal power station. "Our question is, does it need to happen at the cost of the environment?". Sushmita Pathak/NPR These are mangroves, trees or shrubs found in tropical swampy marshland with roots that grow above the ground. The importance of the mangrove ecosystem transcends provisioning services and includes regulatory, ecological, cultural, and aesthetic services. When they are destroyed, the stronger-than-normal waves and currents reaching the coast can undermine the fine sediment in which the mangroves grow. Km. Shallow water condition does not favour the entry of large predators thus providing another form of refuse for small fishes and crustaceans (Boesch & Turner 1984, Blaber 2000). Indications indicate that the rate of migrants in search for better employment has been submitted by university! Groups of fishes and invertebrates which show distinct association with mangrove have developed unusual adaptations to conservation! 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